Everything about Entecavir hydrate powder

 

  1.Hydralazine HCL–CAS: 304-20-1
  2.Hydralazine HCL mechanism of action
  3. How to use Hydralazine HCL?
  4.How should I take hydralazine HCL (Apresoline)?
  5. Hydralazine HCL Dosage
  6.Hydralazine-oral
  7. Hydralazine HCL side effects
  8.How to store hydralazine?HCL(304-20-1)?

 


 

Hydralazine hydrochloride powder video

 

 


I.Hydralazine HCL powder basic Characters:

 

Name: Hydralazine hydrochloride powder
CAS: 304-20-1
Molecular Formula: C8H9ClN4
Molecular Weight: 196.64
Melt Point: 280-282°C
Storage Temp: Refrigerator
Color: White or off white Crystalline powder

 


 

1. Hydralazine HCL–CAS: 304-20-1aasraw

 

Hydralazine HCL is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). It is also used to control high blood pressure in a mother during pregnancy (pre-eclampsia or eclampsia) or in emergency situations when blood pressure is extremely high (hypertensive crisis).
High blood pressure adds to the workload of the heart and arteries. If it continues for a long time, the heart and arteries may not function properly. This can damage the blood vessels of the brain, heart, and kidneys, resulting in a stroke, heart failure, or kidney failure. Lowering blood pressure can increase the risk of heart attacks and strokes.
Hydralazine HCL works by relaxing the blood vessels and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart while reducing its workload.This medicine is available only with your doctor’s prescription.

Hydralazine HCL(304-20-1): Work & Dosage & Side Effects丨AASraw

 


 

2. Hydralazine HCL mechanism of actionaasraw

 

Hydralazine HCL(304-20-1) is a peripheral vasodilator; it causes relaxation of arteriolar smooth muscle via a direct effect. Although stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system is associated with hydralazine HCL administration, this is a compensatory response and not a component of its mechanism. The molecular explanation of hydralazine HCL’s mechanism is not fully understood; however, similar to organic nitrates and nitroprusside, it is thought that hydralazine HCL interferes with the calcium movements within vascular smooth muscle that are responsible for initiating and maintaining the contractile state. In contrast to organic nitrates and sodium nitroprusside, however, hydralazine HCL is selective for arterioles.

The peripheral vasodilating effects of hydralazine HCL result in decreased arterial blood pressure (diastolic more than systolic) and peripheral vascular resistance. In addition, the hydralazine HCL-induced reflex autonomic response increases heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, and left ventricular ejection fraction. The preferential dilation of arterioles, as compared to veins, minimizes postural hydralazine HCL and promotes the increase in cardiac output even though the hydralazine HCL effects of hydralazine HCL are diminished somewhat by this increase in cardiac output. There is also evidence suggesting hydralazine HCL exerts a positive inotropic effect on the failing human ventricle.

Animal and limited human data indicate that nitric oxide (NO) may be generated from hydralazine HCL that also has an antioxidant quality to enhance the effects of nitrates and to mitigate the tolerance associated with chronic nitrate therapy. The antioxidant effect of hydralazine HCL can be attributed to its ability in inhibiting oxidase formation. The accumulation of oxidative free radicals creates an environment where chronic reductions in NO bioavailability contribute to a loss of skeletal muscle microvessels. This effect, in turn, leads to impaired muscle perfusion with elevated metabolic demand. Studies show that treatment with hydralazine HCL markedly inhibits oxidase which plays a role in regulating the bioactivity of NO, produced either endogenously or when administered exogenously.

Cerebral, coronary, splanchnic, and renal blood flow usually increase following administration of hydralazine HCL, while urinary parameters are generally unaffected. hydralazine HCL increases renin activity in plasma, presumably by the renal juxtaglomerular cells in response to sympathetic nervous system stimulation; the increase in renin activity leads to the production of angiotensin II, which stimulates aldosterone and thus, sodium reabsorption. Due to fluid retention, plasma volume increases. As a result, tolerance can develop, which may account for the absence of improvement in some patients receiving the drug for prolonged periods of time.

As an antihypertensive, hydralazine HCL does not lead to improvements in LVH. hydralazine HCL may actually worsen LVH, potentially due to reflex tachycardia and sympathetic stimulation, which may counteract the benefits of afterload reduction.

 


 

3. How to use Hydralazine HCL?aasraw

 

Take this medication by mouth with or without food, usually 2 to 4 times daily or as directed by your doctor. The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment. Your doctor may start you at a low dose and gradually increase your dose. Follow your doctor’s instructions carefully.
Use this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, take it at the same times each day. It is important to continue taking this medication even if you feel well. Most people with high blood pressure do not feel sick. It may take up to several weeks before you get the full benefit of this drug.
Do not stop taking this medication without consulting your doctor. Some conditions may become worse when the drug is suddenly stopped. Your dose may need to be gradually decreased.

Hydralazine HCL mechanism of action and How to store hydralazine HCL powder

 


 

4. How should I take hydralazine HCL (Apresoline)?aasraw

 

Take this medication exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take it in larger amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.
To be sure this medication is helping your condition and is not causing harmful effects, your blood pressure will need to be checked often. You may also need occasional blood tests. Do not miss any scheduled appointments.
Keep using hydralazine HCL as directed, even if you feel well. High blood pressure often has no symptoms, so you may not know when your blood pressure is high. You may need to use blood pressure medication for the rest of your life. Store hydralazine HCL at room temperature away from moisture and heat.

 

(1) What happens if I miss a dose (Apresoline)?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for your next dose, wait until then to take the medicine and skip the missed dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

(2) What happens if I overdose (Apresoline)?

Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much of this medicine.
Overdose symptoms may include headache, dizziness, fast heart rate, warmth or tingling under your skin, chest pain, or fainting.

 

(3)What should I avoid while taking hydralazine HCL (Apresoline)?

Avoid getting up too fast from a sitting or lying position, or you may feel dizzy. Get up slowly and steady yourself to prevent a fall.

 


 

5. Hydralazine HCL Dosageaasraw

 

 Adults

300 mg/day PO for hypertension. Higher doses have been used to treat patients with heart failure; however, doses greater than 200—300 mg/day PO are associated with a higher risk of drug-induced systemic lupus erythematosus. Titrate IV and IM dosage as needed for blood pressure control.

♣ Geriatric

300 mg/day PO for hypertension. Higher doses have been used to treat patients with heart failure; however, doses greater than 200—300 mg/day PO are associated with a higher risk of drug-induced systemic lupus erythematosus. Titrate IV and IM dosage as needed for blood pressure control.

♣ Adolescents

Safety and efficacy not established; however, doses up to 7.5 mg/kg/day PO or 200 mg/day PO, whichever is less, or 3.5 mg/kg/day IV or IM have been used.

♣ Children

Safety and efficacy not established; however, doses up to 7.5 mg/kg/day PO or 200 mg/day PO, whichever is less, or 3.5 mg/kg/day IV or IM have been used.

♣ Infants

Safety and efficacy not established; however, doses up to 7.5 mg/kg/day PO or 3.5 mg/kg/day IV or IM have been used.

♣ Neonates

Safety and efficacy not established; however, doses up to 7.5 mg/kg/day PO or 0.6 mg/kg/dose IV have been used.
Take this medication exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take it in larger amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.
To be sure this medication is helping your condition and is not causing harmful effects, your blood pressure will need to be checked often. You may also need occasional blood tests. Do not miss any scheduled appointments.
Keep using hydralazine as directed, even if you feel well. High blood pressure often has no symptoms, so you may not know when your blood pressure is high. You may need to use blood pressure medication for the rest of your life.
Store hydralazine at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much of this medicine. Overdose symptoms may include headache, dizziness, fast heart rate, warmth or tingling under your skin, chest pain, or fainting.
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for your next dose, wait until then to take the medicine and skip the missed dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

 


 

6. Hydralazine-oralaasraw

 

(1) What are the uses for hydralazine-oral?

Hydralazine-oral is used for the treatment of essential hypertension (high blood pressure), alone or in-combination with other anti-hypertensive medications. It is also used for treating hypertensive crisis and congestive heart failure.
Tell your doctor if your condition worsens (for example, your routine blood pressure readings increase).

 

(2) What is the dosage for hydralazine-oral?

Hypertension in adult patients:
♦ Start treatment at a low dose and increase gradually based on individual patient response. The usual recommended starting regimen is 10 mg orally four times daily for the first 2 to 4 days, increase to 25 mg four times daily for the remainder of the first week.
♦ For the second and subsequent weeks, increase dosage to 50 mg four times daily (increase dose by 10-25 mg/dose gradually every 2-5 days).
♦ The maximum daily dose used in clinical studies is 300 mg.
Congestive heart failure:
♦ The initial dose for treating heart failure is 10 to 25 mg orally 3 to 4 times daily.
♦ The usual dose is 225 to 300 mg daily in 3 to 4 divided doses.
♦ For pediatric hypertensive emergencies, the dose is 0.5 mg/Kg IV every 4 hours.

(3) Is hydralazine-oral safe to take if I’m pregnant or breastfeeding?

Hydralazine-oral should be used in pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Hydralazine-oral is classified as FDA pregnancy risk category C (Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks). It is used for treating high blood pressure during pregnancy.
Hydralazine-oral is excreted in breast milk. Hydralazine-oral should be used cautiously in females who are breastfeeding if treatment is necessary.

 


 

7. Hydralazine HCL side effectsaasraw

 

Hydralazine oral tablet doesn’t cause drowsiness, but it can cause other side effects.

 

(1) More common side effects

The more common side effects that can occur with hydralazine include:
· headache
· loss of appetite (anorexia)
· nausea
· vomiting
· diarrhea
· fast heart rate
· chest pain
If these effects are mild, they may go away within a few days or a couple of weeks. If they’re more severe or don’t go away, talk to your doctor or pharmacist.

 

(2) Serious side effects

Call your doctor right away if you have serious side effects. Call 911 if your symptoms feel life-threatening or if you think you’re having a medical emergency. Serious side effects and their symptoms can include the following:

♦ Heart-related symptoms, such as:

· very low blood pressure (hypotension)
· fast heart rate
· dizziness or disorientation
· swelling in your arms and legs

♦ Nerve problems. Symptoms can include:

· numbness
· tingling
· prickling or itching of your skin

♦ Depression or anxiety. Symptoms can include:

· feeling down or not like yourself
· changes in appetite
· feeling worried or on edge
· not being interested in activities you normally enjoy

♦ Allergic reaction. Symptoms can include:

· skin rash
· itching skin
· redness to your skin
· fever
· chills
· pain in your joints
· Trouble breathing
· Severe constipation
· Trouble urinating

 

Raw Hydralazine HCL powder (304-20-1) hplc≥98% | AASraw powder

 

(3) Can hydralazine HCL cause problems?

Along with their useful effects, most medicines can cause unwanted side-effects although not everyone experiences them. The table below contains some of the more common ones associated with hydralazine HCL. The best place to find a full list of the side-effects which can be associated with your medicine, is from the manufacturer’s printed information leaflet supplied with the medicine. Alternatively, you can find an example of a manufacturer’s information leaflet in the reference section below. Speak with your doctor or pharmacist if any of the following continue or become troublesome.

 

Can hydralazine HCL cause problems?
Very common hydralazine side-effects (these affect more than 1 in 10 people) What can I do if I experience this?
Headache Drink plenty of water and ask your pharmacist to recommend a suitable painkiller. If the headache continues, speak with your doctor
A fast heartbeat, the sensation of having a ‘thumping heart’ (palpitations) If you are concerned, speak with your doctor
Common hydralazine side-effects (these affect less than 1 in 10 people) What can I do if I experience this?
Feeling flushed, swollen feet or ankles, chest pain If any of these symptoms continue or cause you concern, speak with your doctor
Feeling dizzy If this happens, sit down for a while until you feel better. Do not drive and do not use tools or machines while affected. Do not drink alcohol
Feeling sick or being sick (vomiting), diarrhoea Eat simple meals and drink plenty of water to replace lost fluids
Joint or muscle pain Speak with your doctor about this as soon as possible. It may be an early sign of systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome


If you experience any other symptoms which you think may be due to the hydralazine HCL, please speak with your doctor or pharmacist for further advice.

 


 

8. How to store hydralazine HCL(304-20-1)?aasraw

 

♦ Keep all medicines out of the sight and reach of children.
♦ Store in a cool, dry place, away from direct heat and light.

 


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