The Fountain of Youth: NAD+ & NMN as Supplement
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The release of the scientific findings on how the NMN supplement spikes the NAD in the bodies of mice hit the newspaper and magazine headlines, calling the discovery the “fountain of youth.”

The study reported that old mice became young, energetic, and thinner when given the compound. Thus, you can reverse your aging process by taking the supplement. Though you should discuss taking any supplements with your doctor.


History of NMN and NAD+

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, or NAD for short, is one of the most important and versatile molecules in the body. Because it is central to providing cells with energy, there is almost no biological process that does not require NAD. As a result of this, NAD is the focus of widespread biological research.

In 1906, Arthur Harden and William John Young discovered a “factor” in liquid extracted from brewer’s yeast enhanced the fermentation of sugar into alcohol. That “factor”, called a “coferment” at the time, turned out to be NAD.

Harden, along with Hans von Euler-Chelpin, continued to peel apart the mysteries of fermentation. They were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1929 for developing a detailed understanding of these processes, including the chemical shape and properties of what would soon be known as NAD.

The story of NAD expanded in the 1930’s, under the guidance of Otto Warburg, another Nobel laureate, who discovered NAD’s central role in facilitating many biochemical reactions. Warburg discovered that NAD serves as a sort of biological relay for electrons. The transfer of electrons from one molecule to another, serves as the basis for the energy needed to perform all biochemical reactions.

In 1937, Conrad Elvehjem and colleagues at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, discovered that NAD+ supplementation cured dogs of pellagra, or “Black Tongue”. In humans, pellagra causes a host of symptoms, including diarrhea, dementia, and sores in the mouth. It stems from a niacin deficiency and is now regularly treated with nicotinamide, one of the precursors to NMN.

Arthur Kornberg’s research on NAD+ throughout the 40’s and 50’ was instrumental in leading him to discover the principles behind DNA replication and RNA transcription, two processes vital for life. In 1958, Jack Preiss and Philip Handler uncovered the three biochemical steps, by which nicotinic acid is converted to NAD. This series of steps, called a pathway, is known today as the Preiss-Handler Pathway.

In 1963, Chambon, Weill, and Mandel reported that nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) provided the energy needed to activate an important nuclear enzyme. This discovery paved the way for a series of remarkable discoveries on a type of protein called a PARP. PARPs play crucial roles in repairing DNA damage, regulating cell death, and whose activity is associated with changes in lifespan.

In 1976, Rechsteiner and his colleagues found convincing evidence NAD+ seemed likely to have “some other major function” in mammalian cells, beyond its classical biochemical role as an energy transfer molecule.

This discovery made it possible for Leonard Guarente and his colleagues to discover that proteins called sirtuins use NAD to extend lifespan by differentially keeping some genes “silent”. Since then, interest has grown in NAD and its intermediates, NMN and NR, for their potential to ameliorate a number of age-related health issues.


What Foods Contain NMN?

NMN occurs naturally in food such as avocado, broccoli, cabbage, and tomatoes. Now, you might be thinking: “If NMN is found in food, can’t I increase my levels of NAD+ by eating more of those foods? “  That’s a good question and we do encourage you to eat a healthy diet. But, here’s the issue:

Although NMN occurs in these foods, the concentrations are less than 1 mg per kg of food. In other words, to get about 1mg of NMN, you’d have to eat about 1kg of broccoli!

It’s been found that to boost the levels of NAD+ in humans, the levels of NMN should be in the hundreds of milligrams per dose. This is way higher than what we can get from our diets, no matter how much broccoli we eat.


Why Supplement With NMN?

As we have shown, NMN plays a crucial role in creating NAD+. When we have high levels of NAD+ in our bodies, cellular energy increases which becomes the fuel of life—powering every organ and cell in our bodies and protecting us from DNA damage. NAD+ also activates Sirtuins which are essential in increasing our life expectancy and slowing down the aging process.

Supplementing with NMN directly increases the levels of NAD+ in our bodies, which counteracts the natural decline that occurs as we age. Research has shown that by supplementing with NMN, the NAD+ levels in older people can be raised to that of a 20-year-old!


(1) What is Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) and its Works?

NAD+ is an essential coenzyme required for life and cellular functions. Enzymes are catalysts that make biochemical reactions possible. Coenzymes are “helper” molecules that enzymes need in order to function.

NAD+ is the most abundant molecule in the body besides water, and without it, an organism would die. NAD+ is used by many proteins throughout the body, such as the sirtuins, which repair damaged DNA. It is also important for mitochondria, which are the powerhouses of the cell and generate the chemical energy that our bodies use.


(2) Methods to Increase NAD+ levels

Fasting or reducing calorie intake, better known as calorie restriction, has been shown to increase NAD+ levels and sirtuin activity. In mice, the increased NAD+ and sirtuin activity from calorie restriction has been shown to slow the aging process. Although NAD+ is present in some foods, the concentrations are too low to affect intracellular concentrations. Taking certain supplements, such as NMN, has been shown to increase NAD+ levels.


(3) NAD+ Supplement as NMN

Intracellular concentrations of NAD+ decrease from aging as normal cellular functions deplete NAD+ supplies over time. Healthy levels of NAD+ are thought to be restored by supplementation with NAD+ precursors.  According to research, precursors such as NMN and nicotinamide riboside (NR) are viewed as supplements of NAD+ production, increasing concentrations of NAD+. David Sinclair, a NAD+ researcher from Harvard, says, “Feeding or administering NAD+ directly to organisms is not a practical option. The NAD+ molecule cannot readily cross cell membranes to enter cells, and therefore would be unavailable to positively affect metabolism. Instead, precursor molecules to NAD+ must be used to increase bioavailable levels of NAD+.” This means NAD+ cannot be used as a direct supplement, because it is not easily absorbed. NAD+ precursors are more easily absorbed than NAD+ and are more effective supplements.


What is Nicotinamide Mononucleotide(NMN)?

Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (CAS:1094-61-7), also called NMN, which is a naturally occurring compound that is in small amounts in the human body as well as some foods. NMN is orally bioavailable, and when taken orally can support NAD+ levels within liver and muscle tissue.

Recent research has suggested that NMN may support cardiovascular health, energy production, cognitive health, and well as retinal and bone health. One especially interesting finding of NMN research is that it may promote DNA repair and support the activation of the SIRTUIN genes which are thought to play a role in healthy aging.


 How is NMN Synthesized In the Body?

NMN is produced from B vitamins in the body. The enzyme responsible for making NMN in the body is called nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT).  NAMPT attaches  nicotinamide (a vitamin B3) to a sugar phosphate called PRPP (5’-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate). NMN can also be made from ‘nicotinamide riboside’ (NR) through the addition of a phosphate group.

‘NAMPT’ is the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of NAD+. This means lower levels of NAMPT cause decreased NMN production, resulting in decreased NAD+ levels. Adding precursor molecules like NMN can also speed up NAD+ production.


Potential Benefits of NMN

Once inside an animal’s cells, NMN feeds into the production of NAD+, which provides cells with needed energy and is thought to be critical for healthy aging. NAD+ also plays a key role in activating proteins that maintain the integrity of our DNA. Given its central role in so many cellular processes, the potential benefits of NMN extend to nearly all body systems. Below are some of the better-known examples.


 Promotes Vascular Health and Blood Flow

We rely on our skeletal muscles for movement, stability and strength. To remain strong and in good condition, these muscles must consume significant amounts of key energy molecules, like glucose and fatty acids. Because NAD+ is required to metabolize these molecules, our muscles need a steady supply of its building blocks, such as NMN.

Studies in mice have shown that NMN protects against numerous aging-related declines in health, such as the stiffening of blood vessels, oxidative stress, our cells’ ability to keep dividing, and even changes in how active our genes are, what scientists call gene expression.


 Improves Muscle Endurance and Strength

Studies have shown that mice fed NMN for extended periods of time had better energy metabolism with no obvious side effects. The health of our muscles grows ever more important as we age and our own supply of NAD+ declines.


 Protects Against Heart Disease

At least your skeletal muscles get to take breaks. Not only can your heart not take a rest, it can’t even slow its pace much without causing serious problems. The heart’s energy requirement, therefore, is tremendous. And to keep it ticking, it needs to make all the NAD+ it can. This is why cardiac cells need a steady supply of NMN.


 Lowers Risk of Obesity

Obesity is linked to a wide array of unhealthy conditions and can be very challenging to treat. There is no easy remedy for obesity and related conditions such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome. While lifestyle adjustments like consistent exercise and a healthy diet are of paramount importance, every little bit helps.

In mouse studies, NMN displays an effect that mimics aspects of calorie restriction (CR). Although CR has been shown to provide numerous benefits to aging and health, it is a difficult regime to maintain over a long period of time. Mimicking its benefits without adhering to such an extreme diet would be undeniably beneficial.


 Enhances Maintenance of DNA Repair

The NAD+ made from NMN activates a group of proteins called sirtuins. Sirtuins, sometimes thought of as the guardians of our healthspan, play a key role in maintaining DNA integrity. Each time our cells divide, the DNA at the very ends of our chromosomes grows a tiny bit shorter. At a certain point, this begins to damage our genes. Sirtuins slow this process by stabilizing those end bits, known scientifically as telomeres. In order to function, however, sirtuins rely upon NAD+. Recent studies have shown that feeding mice NMN activated sirtuins and led to more stable telomeres.


 Increases Mitochondrial Function

Simply put, we couldn’t live without our mitochondria. These unique cellular structures are known as the powerhouses of the cell. They convert molecules from the food we eat into the energy that our cells use. NAD+ is central to this process. In fact, mitochondrial anomalies caused by the loss of NAD+ may even impact neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s. Studies done in mice have shown that NMN supplementation has rescued some mitochondrial dysfunctions.


How Long Does It Take To See Effects Of NMN?

AASraw’s NMN powder increases the level of NMN in your body within minutes, while NAD+ levels are increased within 60 minutes. However, for the NAD+ to start rejuvenating your cells, it generally takes a few weeks.

Most users report that they feel younger and healthier within 2 to 3 weeks. The complete benefits of NMN can be felt after a few months of use—but you’ll already feel the difference within a few weeks!

So if you want to experience the transforming effects of the AASraw’s NMN, you now have a unique chance to do so. And the best part? You do not have to take any risk. AASraw’s NMN is covered by a satisfaction guarantee. This means that because they are so sure you will love their NMN, they are willing to provide you with a guarantee.


Side Effects of NMN Supplement

With any relatively new supplement, there are concerns about side effects. So far, scientific studies have not shown any alarming or conclusive side effects connected with using this supplement.

The only strong complaint about the nicotinamide mononucleotide is the inconsistency in the effectiveness, but that happens in the developing stages of a new supplement. Of course, you should consult your doctor about taking this supplement, particularly if you are pregnant or breastfeeding.


Is NMN Better Than NAD+?

For many years, it was thought that the NAD+ molecules were too large to be taken directly and needed to be raised using a precursor such as NMN. Recently, it has been found that NAD+ can cross the blood-brain barrier and to reach the hypothalamus if taken sublingually. It can boost NAD+ levels in this gland which will benefit the entire body because it controls the metabolism. It is can also be a potential supplement to help those who have metabolic disorders because of decreased NAD+ levels in the hypothalamus.

NMN, on the other hand, elevates NAD+ levels in cells throughout the body and is a better supplement to take to boost your overall NAD+ levels and slow aging.


Sum up

Nicotinamide mononucleotide(NMN) is a natural element in your body that stimulates the production of another component called nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Both NMN and NAD play a vital role in preventing the aging process. Predominantly NAD, since the older you get, the less potential your body has to produce NAD. That is where the NMN supplement may help since, when consumed by mice, it stimulates the NAD in the lower intestines immediately.

As a result, the supplement is coined the “fountain of youth”, and the body’s aging process slows down and reverses itself. Not only have studies proved the validity of the anti-aging process, but the NMN supplement may also help prevent or treat other diseases such as cancer, heart and diabetes. In 2016, a group of scientists began the first clinical study with humans on the positive effects of taking NMN supplements. Though the effectiveness of NMN is still in the early stages, more and more reports validate the efficacy of the supplement.

When you decide to buy NMN supplement online, please read more articles about NMN and NAD+. You need to know whether it is good for your body, how does work on your body, when you take it and dosage of NMN, any risks on you. Weclome to follow us for more updates about NMN in the future.


Reference For Article

[1] Lautrup S, Sinclair D et al. 2019. NAD+ in Brain Aging and Neurodegenerative Disorders. Cell Metabolism 30,630-655.

[2] Zhang, H., 2016. NAD+ repletion improves mitochondrial and stem cell function and enhances life span in mice. Science 352, 1436-1443.

[3] “NMN vs NR: The Differences Between These 2 NAD+ Precursors”. Retrieved 2021-01-11.

[4] Imai, S., & Guarente, L. 2014. NAD and sirtuins in aging and disease. Trends in Cell Biology, 24(8), 464-471.

[5] Braidy, C.K. Lim, R.Grant, B.J. Brew, and G.J. Guillemin. 2013. Serum Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Levels Through Disease Course in Multiple Sclerosis. Brain Res 1537:267-272.

[6] Stipp D (March 11, 2015). “Beyond Resveratrol: The Anti-Aging NAD Fad”. Scientific American Blog Network.

[7] Prolla, T.,Denu, J. 2014. NAD Deficiency in Age-Related Mitochondrial Dysfunction. Cell Metabolism, 19(2), 178-180.

[8] Fletcher RS, Lavery GG (October 2018). “The emergence of the nicotinamide riboside kinases in the regulation of NAD+ metabolism”. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology. 61 (3): R107–R121. doi:10.1530/JME-18-0085. PMC 6145238. PMID 30307159.


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