The Best Nootropics Aniracetam Powder for Cognitive Enhancement | AASraw

 

Smart Drugs classification

  1.Armodafinil
  2.Modafinil
  3.Noopept
  4.J147
  5. Phenylpiracetam
  6.Sunifiram
  7. Bromantane

 


 

Nootropics are the name of the new Smart-Drugs from Silicon Valley. They promise more mental performance and are currently spreading rapidly from the US West Coast. Experts warn against dangers of the new cult.

Noootropics, also known as intelligent drugs, memory stimulants, and cognitive enhancers, are drugs that elevate certain human mental functions (the functions and capabilities of the brain ) such as cognition, memory, intelligence, creativity, motivation, attention and concentration. In most cases the mechanism of action of nootropics is unknown. It is believed that nootropics work by altering the availability of neurochemical supplies in the brain ( neurotransmitters , enzymes and hormones ), by improving or activating brain metabolism, or by stimulating neuronal growth ( neurogenesis ).

 


 

Smart Drugs history

 

The word “nootropic” was coined in 1972 by the Romanian physician Corneliu E. Giurgea (1923-1995). Giurgea was involved in the synthesis of the substance piracetam in 1964 , which is now one of the most well-known nootropics. He chose the term in lexical analogy to the term psychotropic .

Giurgea served as Professor of Neurophysiology at the Faculty of Medicine in Bucharest and in Belgium in 1963 became Head of Neuropharmacology at UCB.

According to Giurgea, nootropics are drugs that share the essential characteristics of piracetam, namely:

1. A direct activation of the integrative activities of the brain, which convey an immediate positive effect on the mind.
2. This activation should selectively affect the telencephalon and not manifest in other brain levels.
3. So as to exert a restorative effect on problems of higher brain activity.

Any nootropic substance according to Giurgea’s criteria can actually improve cognition. A substance with a positive cognitive effect is only a nootropic in the sense of the definition if it also has a neuroprotective effect and is free of toxicity. Brain stimulants such as amphetamine are not nootropic agents in the strict sense, although they can bring about cognitive enhancement, as they may be associated with toxic effects.

 


 

Mode of action

 

Studies on the effects of nootropics have revealed various pharmacological effects; but a single predominant type of effect that shares the entire drug class is not prevalent. All the facts influence the cholinergic function: Increasing the choline uptake increases the production and turnover of acetylcholine , which acts on muscarinic and nicotinic receptors . Piracetam also increases the density of acetylcholine receptors of the frontal cortex by 30% -40%.

Energy delivery in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is critical to brain survival. Brain cells need to gain their own ATP from glucose and oxygen and can not absorb ATP from other cells. Piracetam enhances the activity of the adenylate kinase enzyme, which converts adenosine diphosphate (ADP) into ATP and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). This reduces the drop in ATP concentration in the brain in hypoxia and accelerates recovery from hypoxia, also due to the enhancement of oxidative glycolysis.

Another mechanism of action is a reduction in platelet aggregation and an improvement in cellular membrane fluidity, presumably by incorporation of phospholipids into the membrane.

 

Common side effects of such nootropics include:

• Excessive arousal or nervousness
• Restlessness and irritability states up to aggressiveness
• body tremors
• Depression and anxiety
• Insomnia or drowsiness
• Nausea with vomiting
• sweats
• stomach pain
• Diarrhea or weight gain
Sometimes there are also dizziness or weaknesses, blood pressure reduction or increase and an increased libido.

 

Substances with the following characteristics are assigned to the nootropics:

• Activation of the activity of the brain with stimulating effect on the mind
• Effect in the cerebrum, other areas of the brain may not be affected
• Improvement of learning
• Effect on memory
• Strengthening learned behaviors and memories
• Increase the effectiveness of the control mechanisms of the cerebral cortex
• Do not overshadow the effects of psychoactive drugs
• Few side effects, low toxicity

 


 

The free market for nootropics

 

In recent years, the market for nootropics has grown . Many substances have only a temporary approval or their effect has not been proven. Sometimes long-term studies on side effects are missing. There is a clear distinction between drugs and other substances. By definition, any substance that positively affects the brain’s performance is a nootropic agent if it has a neuroprotective effect and is non-toxic. In this sense, substances such as amphetamine are not among the nootropics as it is toxic.

A common feature of nootropics is that they all support and enhance the neurotransmitters in the brain and their orbits. The “energy of the brain” is the adenosine triphosphate (abk. ATP), which forms the brain cells themselves from sugar and oxygen. For example, piracetam simplifies and boosts the production of ATP under a condition of lack of oxygen. It also increases the blood flow to the brain, the oxygen consumption and the sugar metabolism.

The 7 Best Nootropics(Smart Drugs) in the market of 2018

 

Smart Drugs classification

 

Nootropics can be classified according to how they are used:

 


 

1. Armodafinil

 

Armodafinil is a drug from the group of psychostimulants, which differs significantly in its molecular structure from the amphetamine – based stimulants. It represents the ( R ) -enantiomer of the racemate modafinil.

 

Indication

Used for narcolepsy, depression, idiopathic sleepiness or narcolepsy with excessive sleep during the day.

 

Contraindicatio

1. Disabled for allergic to this product.

2. Left ventricular hypertrophy, ischemic electrocardiographic changes, chest pain, arrhythmia or clinical manifestations of mitral valve prolapse and recent myocardial infarction, unstable angina patients disabled.

 

Precautions

1. The drug should be started from a small dose (50 ~ 100mg daily), 50mg every 4 ~ 5 days, until the optimal dose (200 ~ 400mg daily).
2. The dose of patients with severe liver damage is halved, renal insufficiency and dosage of elderly patients should be reduced.
3. Overdose can cause insomnia, central nervous system symptoms, such as restlessness, disorientation, confusion, excitement, hallucinations, digestive system can occur nausea, diarrhea, cardiovascular system can occur tachycardia, bradycardia, high blood pressure, Chest pain. This product has no specific antidote, and it should be supported by overdose.
4. Avoid taking alcoholic beverages while using this product.
5. Those with a history of mental illness should be used with caution.
6. Reproductive toxicity is classified as C, and the use of pregnant women should weigh the pros and cons.
7. The safety of medication for children under 16 years of age has not been evaluated.

 

Adverse reactions

1. Whole body headache, back pain, flu-like symptoms, chest pain, chills, and neck stiffness.
2. Cardiovascular hypertension, tachycardia, palpitations, vasodilation.
3. Digestive system nausea, diarrhea, indigestion, dry mouth, loss of appetite, constipation, abnormal liver function, flatulence, formation of oral ulcers, dry mouth, thirst.
4. Hemolymphatic system eosinophilia.
5. Metabolic edema.
6. Nervous system nervousness, insomnia, anxiety, dizziness, depression, paresthesia, lethargy, hypertonia, dyskinesia, hyperactivity, agitation, confusion, tremors, emotional instability, dizziness.
7. Respiratory system rhinitis, pharyngitis, lung disease, epistaxis, asthma.
8. Skin sweating, herpes simplex.
9. Specific feeling amblyopia, visual abnormalities, reversed taste, eye pain.
10. Urogenital system abnormal urination, hematuria, pyuria.

 

Dosage

Oral, 200 ~ 400mg daily, taken in the morning. The dose of severe liver function should be reduced to 1/2 of the normal dose.

 

Drug corresponding effect


1. The inhibitor of CYP3A4 such as carbamazepine, itraconazole, ketoconazole or phenobarbital, rifampicin CYP3A4 inducer and modafinil may change the blood concentration of this product.
2. This product is a CYP3A4 inducer, which reduces the blood concentration of cyclosporine by 50% and also reduces the plasma concentration of theophylline.
3. This product is a reversible CYP2C19 inhibitor, which increases the blood concentration of warfarin, diazepam and phenytoin. This product can also increase tricyclic antidepressants, chlorpromazine and omeprazole. Blood concentration of drugs such as lansoprazole and propranolol. When applied simultaneously with the above drugs, the dose should be adjusted accordingly and the blood concentration should be monitored.
4. This product can reduce the curative effect of steroidal contraceptives. Other contraceptive measures should be taken during the use of this product and within one month after stopping the drug

 


 

2. Modafinil

 

Modafinil is an awakening accelerator used to treat disorders such as narcolepsy, shift work sleep disturbances, and daytime excessive sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea. Modafinil is also widely used outside of indications as a cognitive enhancer.

 

Clinical application

1. Treatment of narcolepsy: narcolepsy is a central nervous system disease whose cause is unknown. The main symptoms are that it can’t stay awake or alert during the day, and there are unstoppable sleep episodes and trips. Patients often cannot make self-made diseases. Sleeping and unable to live normally. As a new kind of awakening drug, Modafinil can make patients get rid of drowsiness during the day and maintain normal work, but there will be no adverse reactions such as abnormal excitement. The most ideal drug for sleep disorders. Studies have shown that modafinil can effectively improve symptoms and significantly reduce the amount of sleep and the number of days during the day without affecting the time and quality of sleep at night. Oral modafinil was administered to 18 patients with spontaneous narcolepsy and 24 patients with narcolepsy at a daily dose of 200-500 mg/day. The results showed that sleep and fatigue were observed in patients with spontaneous narcolepsy and narcolepsy. Sleep was significantly reduced, with a total effective rate of 83% and 71%, respectively. Modafinil can also prevent mental dyskinesia caused by sleep deprivation, improve cognitive function, and has no effect on the beginning, maintenance, awakening and sleep composition of nighttime sleep, nor does it affect the behavior of the morning and the daytime sputum.

2. Treatment of alcoholic organic encephalopathy syndrome: Modafinil can also be used to treat alcoholic organic encephalopathy syndrome. Some people used modafinil to treat alcoholic organic encephalopathy syndrome, and conducted clinical psychological tests and neurophysiological studies. The results showed that modafinil increased excitability after taking the drug daily, and the clinical treatment effective rate was 85%. The effective dose of this product is 200 ~ 400 mg per day, taken twice in the morning and in the middle.

3. Enhance the therapeutic effect of anti-depressant drugs: due to the low addictive nature of modafinil makes it promising as a substitute for other stimulants, is a promising anti-depressant drug enhancer.

4. For the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: clinical evidence suggests that modafinil can improve children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Contraindication

1. Disabled for allergic to this product.

2. Left ventricular hypertrophy, ischemic electrocardiographic changes, chest pain, arrhythmia or clinical manifestations of mitral valve prolapse and recent myocardial infarction, unstable angina patients disabled.

 


 

3. Noopept

 

Noopept is a nootropic peptide. Noopept increases the ability to learn, improves memory, while providing an impact on all phases of the process: processing, consolidation and retrieval of information. The drug prevents the development of anemia due to electric shock, the absence of a paradoxical phase of sleep, as well as the blockade of glutamatergic and central cholinergic receptor structures.

The neuroprotective effect of the drug Noopept is realized by increasing the resistance of tissues to hypoxia, toxic and traumatic lesions. On the thrombotic model of stroke, Noopept reduces the volume of the lesion, and also prevents the death of the cells of the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex, which are exposed to neurotoxic doses of glutamate and free radical oxygen. In addition, noopept reduces the severity of excess calcium, promotes the normalization of the rheological properties of the blood (due to fibrinolytic, anticoagulant and antiaggregatory action).

 


 

4. J147

 

J147 CAS 1146963-51-0 is an experimental drug is used in the treatment of Alzheimer’s and dementia. An experimental drug called J147 may be a modern elixir. Studies have shown that it can effectively treat Alzheimer’s disease and reverse the aging of mice. Scientists are also ready to use the drug for human clinical trials. Recently, in a research report published in the international magazine Aging Cell , researchers from the Salk Institute unveiled the molecular mechanism by which J147 works. They found that J147 can be a protein in mitochondria. Combines to promote aging cells, mice, and fruit flies that look younger.

Researcher Dave Schubert said that in this study we found a link between the experimental drug J147 and the body’s aging, Alzheimer’s disease; the search for J147 targets may be crucial for the clinical treatment of aging. As early as 2011 , we developed the drug J147 , a modified version of the curry spice turmeric. Since the development of J147, researchers have found that it can effectively reverse the individual’s memory defects and potentially promote new brain cells. At the same time, it can slow or reverse the Alzheimer’s disease in the mouse body, but researchers have not been clear how J147 works at the molecular level.

Many studies have already looked at the effect of huperzine on Alzheimer’s therapies. Unfortunately, these test results are not very meaningful , as in most cases only a small number of participants was present, or questionable test methods were used.

In a meta-analysis of several research papers, improvements were seen (in Alzheimer’s patients) in the following areas: cognitive skills, general condition, and daily activities. Unfortunately, there is generally little research on pramiracetam, but in the last 10 years, not a single study on the substance has been published.

 


 

5. Phenylpiracetam

 

Phenylpiracetam is a nootropic agent that positively affects mental ability and is considered a mild stimulant. As the name suggests, it is a modification of piracetam , which has an additional phenyl group.

Allegedly, it is 20-60 times as strong (on a gram basis) as its parent substance.

In a study comparing the two substances, phenylpiracetam was considered more potent than piracetam in the following areas:

Neuroprotection, anti-amnesia, and stimulation .

Other names: Fonturacetam, ( RS ) -2- (4-phenyl-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl) acetamide, phenotropil, carphedone

 

Operation

Due to the structural similarity with the substance phenethylamine, whose molecular structure has stimulatory properties , it can be assumed that there is a connection to the adrenaline and dopamine receptors.

According to the developers of Phenotropil increases the following levels in the brain: blood flow, epinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin. However, it has no influence or binding affinity with GABA .

In an American research paper (with rodents) there are indications of increased levels of the acetylcholine and NMDA receptors, and a reduced concentration of serotonin and dopamine receptors.

 

Safety & Side Effects


Like all Racetams, it is well tolerated by the human body ; The risk of side effects is low – as long as it is consumed in reasonable amounts (see Intake & Tolerance).

Phenylpiracetam should not be taken during pregnancy or breastfeeding. Also for patients with liver or kidney damage it is better to do without.

The usual side effects of stimulants are also present, such as: feelings of anxiety, irritability, or palpitations .

Some users report headaches . These can occur in all Racetamen, if in the brain an acetylcholine deficiency prevails. As an antidote, you simply add a choline source to your stack .

 

toxicity

In rodents, a lethal dose of 880mg / kg body weight was detected, indicating a high safety margin from the recommended dose.

According to the manufacturer, there are no documented tetralogic , mutagenic or carcinogenic effects.

 


 

6. Sunifiram

 

Sunifiram is closely related to the Racetamen in its chemical structure , and shares many of its nootropic properties. It is advertised as 1000 times as strong as piracetam (gram-based), paying attention to a precise dosage, and it should not be taken with other nootropics together.

It was developed mainly as a cheap alternative to Unifiram.

It aims to promote memory, learning, clear thinking, concentration, motivation, vision and mood.

Dosage: There are no meaningful studies, but it was decided that 5 – 10mg per day is optimal for most people.

Sunifiram should not be overdosed or mixed with other nootropics.

Long-term users report tolerance formation, which is why it should only be consumed sporadically or in cycles.

It acts as an AMPA agonist and increases the production of glutamine, moreover releases acetylcholine in the cerebral cortex.

Although no side effects have been identified through research, Sunifiram may cause severe side effects such as drowsiness, insomnia and headache in case of overdose.

 


 

7. Bromantane

 

Bromantane is a stimulant that helps improve athletic performance. When used once a week , the body should not develop greater tolerance to it, and remain sensitive to the drug.

It appears to suppress sleep-induced side effects without compromising cognitive ability. In addition, under normal circumstances (when there is no lack of sleep) it may increase alertness and work capacity.

The mechanism of action of modafinil is not fully understood. It is believed to increase the concentration of various neurotransmitters in the brain.

Bromantane improves performance in some cognitive areas, such as the working memory, long term memory and thinking ability.

Bromantane can reduce the effects of some medications by speeding their breakdown. These include: itraconazole, ciclosporin, temazepam, amitriptyline, erythromycin.

If blood-thinning agents such as aspirin or warfarin are taken, you should regularly check your blood clotting.

 


 

Smart Drugs description

 

Apixaban(Eliquis): uses,interactions,side effects,warnings

 

1. Armodafinil

 

Armodafinil, is a white solid chemical. Chemical name 2-[( R )-(diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl]acetamide having a molecular formula of C 15 H 15 NO 2 S having a molecular weight of 273.35000 and a melting point of 156 to 158 �C. Amofenib is a stimulant drug and is mainly used for the treatment of narcolepsy, depression, idiopathic sleepiness or narcolepsy during the day.

 

CAS No.: 112111-43-0

Molecular formula: C 15 H 15 NO 2 S
Molecular weight: 273.35000
Exact quality: 273.008200
PSA: 79.37000
LogP: 3.57600

 

Physicochemical properties

Appearance and traits: white solid
Density: 1.283g/cm 3
Melting point: 156-158oC
Boiling point: 559.1oC at 760mmHg
Flash point: 292oC
Refractive index: 1.645
Vapor pressure: 1.56E-12mmHg at 25C

 

Pharmacological action

This product can increase the activity of the brain nerves at therapeutic doses and increase the nerve function of various parts of the brain. This product produces mental excitement similar to other typical central nervous system stimulants, improving mood, feelings, thoughts and emotions. The central excitatory effect of this product may be through the addition of glutamine synthetase, which reduces the production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and promotes the detoxification and energy metabolism activities of nerve cells.

 

Pharmacokinetics

This product is quickly and completely absorbed after oral administration. The plasma concentration reaches a peak at about 2 to 4 hours. The food does not affect the bioavailability of the product, but it can delay the absorption of the drug and delay the peak concentration by 1 h. This product is widely distributed in the body, the apparent distribution volume is about 0.9L / kg, higher than the total body fluid 0.6L / kg. The plasma protein binding rate is 60%, which is mainly combined with plasma albumin. After administration of 200 mg per day, plasma drug concentration reached a steady state, and did not affect plasma protein binding of warfarin, diazepam, and propranolol. Modafinil is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system of CYP3A4 in the liver. Therefore, the combined use of CYP3A4 inducer or inhibitor will affect the blood concentration and duration of action of this product. This product is metabolized by the liver to produce two major metabolites, modafinic acid and modafinilone, which have no therapeutic effect. Metabolites account for 90% and unmetabolized parent drugs are less than 10%. The drug is excreted by the kidneys, and the elimination half-life of the drug is 10-15 hours. The drug clearance rate of young women is higher than that of young men, and the clearance rate of the elderly is significantly lower than that of young people.

 


 

2. Modafinil

 

CAS No.: 112111-43-0

Molecular formula: C 15 H 15 NO 2 S
Molecular weight: 273.35000
Exact quality: 273.008200
PSA: 79.37000
LogP: 3.57600

 

Physicochemical properties

Melting point: 164-166  C

 

Pharmacological action

Modafinil can increase the central excitability of the normal population. EEG monitoring from the first hour to the 22nd hour after oral modafinil indicates that the α/θ value reflecting the alertness is high, and the occasional micro-sleep wave Almost completely suppressed. For sleep deprived people, sleep deprivation can cause people’s alertness and ability to work down.

Taking modafinil can effectively improve this condition. Studies have shown that after a night of sleep deprivation, taking 200 mg of modafinil, the psychomotor capacity of volunteers was significantly higher than that of the placebo group; during the 60-hour sleep deprivation, every 8 hours Dalfene 200 mg is still able to maintain the center of sleep deprivation in a state of excitement, so that they maintain considerable alertness and ability to work. Modafinil also has a certain neuroprotective effect. It has been found in animal models of brain injury that modafinil can effectively antagonize the production of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine.

The neurotoxic effect makes the symptoms significantly relieved. The neuroprotective effects of modafinil were also confirmed in the striatum mechanical injury model and the ischemic injury model, respectively. The central excitatory action of modafinil is associated with a decrease in the inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, and is regulated by serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine. The study found that the central excitatory effect of modafinil may be through the increase of glutamine synthetase, thereby reducing the production of GABA, and promoting the detoxification and energy metabolism activities of nerve cells.

 

Pharmacokinetics

This product is quickly and completely absorbed after oral administration. The plasma concentration reaches a peak at about 2 to 4 hours. The food does not affect the bioavailability of the product, but it can delay the absorption of the drug and delay the peak concentration by 1 h. This product is widely distributed in the body, the apparent distribution volume is about 0.9L / kg, higher than the total body fluid O.6L / kg. The plasma protein binding rate is 60%, which is mainly combined with plasma albumin. After administration of 200 mg per day, plasma drug concentration reached a steady state, and did not affect plasma protein binding of warfarin, diazepam, and propranolol.

Modafinil is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system of CYP3A4 in the liver. Therefore, the combined use of CYP3A4 inducer or inhibitor will affect the blood concentration and duration of action of this product. This product is metabolized by the liver to produce two major metabolites, modafinic acid and modafinilone, which have no therapeutic effect. Metabolites account for 90% and unmetabolized parent drugs are less than 10%. The drug is excreted by the kidneys, and the elimination half-life of the drug is 10-15 hours. The drug clearance rate of young women is higher than that of young men, and the clearance rate of the elderly is significantly lower than that of young people.

 


 

Medicine interactions

1. The inhibitor of CYP3A4 such as carbamazepine, itraconazole, ketoconazole or phenobarbital, rifampicin CYP3A4 inducer and modafinil may change the blood concentration of this product.

2. This product is a CYP3A4 inducer, which reduces the blood concentration of cyclosporine by 50% and also reduces the plasma concentration of theophylline.

3. This product is a reversible CYP2C19 inhibitor, which increases the blood concentration of warfarin, diazepam and phenytoin. This product can also increase tricyclic antidepressants, chlorpromazine and omeprazole. Blood concentration of drugs such as lansoprazole and propranolol. When applied simultaneously with the above drugs, the dose should be adjusted accordingly and the blood concentration should be monitored.

4. This product can reduce the curative effect of steroidal contraceptives. Other contraceptive measures should be taken during the use of this product and within one month after stopping the drug.

 


 

3. Noopept

 

Noopept is partially metabolized with the formation of phenylacetylproline, cycloprolylglycine and phenylacetic acid. The half-life of noopept reaches 0.38 hours.

CAS NO. 157115-85-0
Molecular formula C17H22N2O4
Molecular weight 318.37

 

Noopept is not cumulated in the body.

The mechanism of nootropic action of the drug is based on its ability to form cycloprolylglycine similar in structure to the endogenous antiamnestic cyclic dipeptide.

The preparation Noopept raises the transcallosal response amplitude, facilitates associative connections at the level of cortical structures between the brain hemispheres.

When using the drug Hoenopt, recovery of cognitive functions, reduced due to craniocerebral trauma, prenatal injuries, as well as local and global ischemia, is noted.

In patients with organic lesions of the central nervous system, the effect of the drug Hoenopt develops on the 5th-7th day of treatment. At the beginning of the therapy, anxiolytic and some stimulating effect of the drug Hoenopt is more pronounced, including a decrease in anxiety and sleep improvement in patients. After 2-3 weeks after the start of therapy, there is a marked improvement in cognitive functions.
Noopept also has a vegetomonal effect (reduces headaches, tachycardia and orthostatic disorders).

For the drug Hoenopt is not characterized by teratogenic, immunotoxic and mutagenic effect. Noopept does not cause addiction, after the cessation of therapy in patients there is no development of withdrawal syndrome.

After oral administration, noopept is well absorbed in the digestive tract. Bioavailability of noopept reaches 99.7%. The active component penetrates the blood-brain barrier, while its concentration in the synovial fluid exceeds plasma concentrations.

Peak plasma concentrations are achieved within 15 minutes after oral administration.

 

Indications for use

Noopept is used to treat patients of different age categories (adults and elderly patients) suffering from cognitive impairment and emotional lability of different genesis. In particular, the drug Noopept can be prescribed after the traumatic brain injury and coma, as well as patients with cerebral circulatory insufficiency (including encephalopathy of various etiologies) and asthenic disorders.

Noopept can be appointed to enhance cognitive functions (memory, concentration and learning ability) for patients with increased physical, intellectual and emotional stress.

 

Mode of application

Noopept is for oral use. Tablets should be taken after a meal, with plenty of drinking water or unsweetened tea. At the beginning of therapy, as a rule, appoint 10 mg of noopept twice a day. In the event that the therapeutic effect is not expressed enough and the drug Hoenopt is well tolerated by patients, the dose is increased to 10 mg three times a day.

 


 

4. J147

 

J147 CAS 1146963-51-0 belongs to the family of the Racetame ; The substances in this group are similar in structure , but differ in their chemical characteristics.

CAS Number 1146963-51-0
Formula C18H17F3N2O2
Molar mass 350.34 g·mol−1

 

All Racetams can cross the blood-brain barrier (to varying degrees); Pramiracetam has the greatest fat solubility of the well-known Racetame, and is rapidly absorbed by the body – probably because of its ability to pass through the double lipid layer .

Some researchers assume that it is 5-10x as strong as its well-known source material ” Piracetam “.

It differs mainly from his brothers through his ability to increase concentration. In addition, it has other typical Racetam properties, such as increased memory and learning ability .

 


 

5. Phenylpiracetam

 

It is believed that the structural similarity with phenethylamine is responsible for the stimulatory effect. Here, most of the research was done only on people who suffered from memory disorders caused by strokes or brain injuries.

CAS Number 77472-70-9

Molecular formula C 12 H 14 N 2 O 2
Molar mass 218.26 g · mol -1

 

Encephalopathy patients given a daily dose of 200mg saw improvements in anxiety disorders, pain, and depression.

Other studies also noted improvements in memory and attention span.

Probably the anticonvulsant and cognitive properties are attributable to the piracetam part of the molecular structure.

Although scientists are uncertain about the exact mechanism of action of piracetam, they believe that increased cell fluidity and glutamate regulation are responsible for the effect.

There are many reports from users pointing to the rapid formation of tolerance to the stimulating effect of phenylpiracetam.

 


 

6. Sunifiram

 

Interestingly, some neurochemical changes were noted: animals that were under the action of sunifiram had increased phosphorylation of various molecules in the brain, which are closely related to learning and memory processes.

CAS Number 314728-85-3

Formula C14H18N2O2
Molar mass 246.304 g/mol

 

The experimental animals were divided into two groups: One half was led to Sunifiram, the other got nothing. Afterwards, the memory ability of the animals was tested with the help of a Y-maze and an object recognition test was carried out.

The following conclusion was obtained: Animals given sunifiram had better results.
Sunifirams effect in depression: No difference was found between the two groups. Interestingly enough, many of the testimonials on the internet show an antidepressant effect.

 

Operation

Preliminary studies report two main mechanisms of action:
1. The structure of Sunifiram is similar to that of other Ampakines. It works by activating AMPA receptors. In a mouse study, the animals were first given the AMPA antagonist NBQX. After feeding Sunifiram to the animals, it appeared to reverse the effects of NBQX. As an AMPA agonist it could improve memory, learning ability, attention span and alertness.
2. Otherwise, sunifiram appears to release acetylcholine in the cerebral cortex. As a cholinergic compound, it may improve short-term memory, long-term memory, and motor skills. To confirm this effect, more studies need to be published.

 

Side effects

In a study that found the efficacy of sunifiram (0.001 mg / kg smallest effective dose), no side effects were seen with an injected dose (rodents) of 1 mg / kg.

Unfortunately, there are no clinical studies, based on the experience of other users. General Sunifiram is than in a reasonable dosage safely classified, but it should in no way be overdosed and not in combination be used with other nootropics.

 


 

7. Bromantane

 

Bromantane is a stimulant that helps improve athletic performance. When used once a week , the body should not develop greater tolerance to it, and remain sensitive to the drug.

It is recommended not to take Bromantane more than 3 times a week . Also on long-term consumption you should rather do without.

CAS No.:87913-26-6
Molecular formula: C16H20BrN
Molecular weight: 306.24
MOL File:87913-26-6.mol

 

It appears to suppress sleep-induced side effects without compromising cognitive ability. In addition, under normal circumstances (when there is no lack of sleep) it may increase alertness and work capacity.

The mechanism of action of modafinil is not fully understood. It is believed to increase the concentration of various neurotransmitters in the brain.

Bromantane improves performance in some cognitive areas, such as the working memory, long term memory and thinking ability.

Bromantane can reduce the effects of some medications by speeding their breakdown. These include: itraconazole, ciclosporin, temazepam, amitriptyline, erythromycin.

If blood-thinning agents such as aspirin or warfarin are taken, you should regularly check your blood clotting.

 


 

Smart Drugs summary

 

What nootropics are not:

• You will not become a super brain overnight, as in the movie “Limitless”. Think of it as a supplement that you can use to your advantage.
• Nootropics are no substitute for healthy eating, regular exercise, and adequate sleep.
• Also in the IQ test are not expected too large jumps.

 

How does a nootropic drug work?

Nootropics work by changing the following things:
Brain metabolism, oxygenation of the brain, availability of brain cells, cell growth.
The exact effect depends on the preparation.

 

Which changes can be expected?

Depending on the substance, improvements can be expected in the following areas:
• ability to concentrate
• spatial memory
• learning ability
• working memory
• Word river / eloquence
• Ability to solve problems (thought flow)

In addition to neural growth can with positive changes in sleep quality , anxiety disorders , contact anxiety , shyness , stage fright , nervousness and motivation to be expected.

 

Are Nootropics Addictive?

Roughly speaking: no. For stimulants such as caffeine, sulbutiamine , and modafinil , that’s another story.

Time until the onset of effect
This cannot be generalized, it depends on the product, and the user. The following points are averages and may vary.

Stimulants / awake-makers (caffeine, modafinil, etc.) – within 30 minutes to several hours.

Nutrient Based Nootropics (Creatine, Omega-3 ) – Usually within 4 to 8 weeks.

Piracetam – Within 2 – 4 weeks . A test run should be performed for at least two weeks.

 


 

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