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γ-Aminobutyric acid(GABA:56-12-2)

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GABA is taken by mouth for relieving anxiety, improving mood, reducing symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), and treating attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is also used for promoting lean muscle growth, burning fat, stabilizing blood pressure, and relieving pain.

Product Description

Basic Characteristics

Product Name γ-Aminobutyric acid(GABA)
CAS Number 56-12-2
Molecular Formula C4H9NO2
Formula Weight 103.12
Synonyms 4-aminobutyric acid

4-Aminobutanoic acid

gamma-aminobutyric acid

GABA

56-12-2

Appearance White powder
Storage and Handling Dry, dark and 0 – 4 C for short term, or -20 C for long term.

 

γ-Aminobutyric acid(GABA)Description

γ-aminobutyric acid, or gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the developmentally mature mammalian central nervous system. Its principal role is reducing neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system.

GABA is sold as a dietary supplement in many countries. It has been traditionally thought that exogenous GABA (i.e. taken as a supplement) doesn’t cross the blood-brain barrier, however data obtained from more current research indicates that it may be possible.

 

γ-Aminobutyric acid(GABA) Mechanism of Action

Drugs that act as allosteric modulators of GABA receptors (known as GABA analogues or GABAergic drugs), or increase the available amount of GABA, typically have relaxing, anti-anxiety, and anti-convulsive effects. Many of the substances below are known to cause anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia.

In general, GABA does not cross the blood–brain barrier, although certain areas of the brain that have no effective blood–brain barrier, such as the periventricular nucleus, can be reached by drugs such as systemically injected GABA.  At least one study suggests that orally administered GABA increases the amount of human growth hormone (HGH). GABA directly injected to the brain has been reported to have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on the production of growth hormone, depending on the physiology of the individual. Certain pro-drugs of GABA (ex. picamilon) have been developed to permeate the blood–brain barrier, then separate into GABA and the carrier molecule once inside the brain.

GABA enhanced the catabolism of serotonin into N-acetylserotonin (the precursor of melatonin) in rats. It is thus suspected that GABA is involved in the synthesis of melatonin and thus might exert regulatory effects on sleep and reproductive functions.

 

γ-Aminobutyric acid(GABA) Application

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid is a naturally occurring neurotransmitter with central nervous system (CNS) inhibitory activity. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), converted from the principal excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in the brain, plays a role in regulating neuronal excitability by binding to its receptors, GABA-A and GABA-B, and thereby causing ion channel opening, hyperpolarization and eventually inhibition of neurotransmission.

Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a gamma-amino acid that is butanoic acid with the amino substituent located at C-4. It has a role as a signalling molecule, a human metabolite, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite and a neurotransmitter. It is a gamma-amino acid and a monocarboxylic acid. It derives from a butyric acid. It is a conjugate acid of a gamma-aminobutyrate. It is a tautomer of a gamma-aminobutyric acid zwitterion.

 

Benefits of γ-Aminobutyric acid(GABA)

GABA is taken by mouth for relieving anxiety, improving mood, reducing symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), and treating attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is also used for promoting lean muscle growth, burning fat, stabilizing blood pressure, and relieving pain.

 

Reference

1, Chapouthier G, Venault P (October 2001). “A pharmacological link between epilepsy and anxiety?”. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 22 (10): 491–3. doi:10.1016/S0165-6147(00)01807-1. PMID 11583788.

2, Campagna JA, Miller KW, Forman SA (May 2003). “Mechanisms of actions of inhaled anesthetics”. N. Engl. J. Med. 348 (21): 2110–24. doi:10.1056/NEJMra021261. PMID 12761368.

3, Müller EE, Locatelli V, Cocchi D (April 1999). “Neuroendocrine control of growth hormone secretion”. Physiol. Rev. 79 (2): 511–607. doi:10.1152/physrev.1999.79.2.511. PMID 10221989.

4, Powers ME, Yarrow JF, McCoy SC, Borst SE (January 2008). “Growth hormone isoform responses to GABA ingestion at rest and after exercise”. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 40 (1): 104–10. doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e318158b518. PMID 18091016.

5, Balemans MG, Mans D, Smith I, Van Benthem J (1983). “The influence of GABA on the synthesis of N-acetylserotonin, melatonin, O-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptophol and O-acetyl-5-methoxytryptophol in the pineal gland of the male Wistar rat”. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development. 23 (1): 151–60. doi:10.1051/rnd:19830114. PMID 6844712.

6, Sato S, Yinc C, Teramoto A, Sakuma Y, Kato M (2008). “Sexually dimorphic modulation of GABA(A) receptor currents by melatonin in rats gonadotropin–releasing hormone neurons”. J Physiol Sci. 58 (5): 317–322. doi:10.2170/physiolsci.rp006208. PMID 18834560.

7, Kuriyama K, Sze PY (January 1971). “Blood–brain barrier to H3-γ-aminobutyric acid in normal and amino oxyacetic acid-treated animals”. Neuropharmacology. 10 (1): 103–108. doi:10.1016/0028-3908(71)90013-X. PMID 5569303.

8, Foster AC, Kemp JA (February 2006). “Glutamate- and GABA-based CNS therapeutics”. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 6 (1): 7–17. doi:10.1016/j.coph.2005.11.005. PMID 16377242.