I.DNP (51-28-5) basic Characters:
|Melt Point:||108-112 °C|
|Color:||Light yellow or yellow crytalline powder|
The number of people who want to lose weight through weight loss pill has been on the rise. They turn to the internet to get advice as well as prescriptions. DNP (C6H4N2O5) or 2, 4-Dinitrophenol 51-28-5 is a weight loss compound combination that initially became popular in 1930. Research shows that if a person takes 300–400 mg of the drug on a daily basis, his or her basal metabolic rate is likely to increase by 36% to 95%.
Chemical properties of DNP
DNP plays the role of a proton ionophore in active body cells. Proton ionophore refers to an agent with the capability of shuttling protons, also known as hydrogen cations across the membranes of the bodies of living things. DNP disperses proton gradient throughout the membrane of mitochondria or chloroplast and as a result, proton motive force, the energy used by living cells to make the majority of their adenosine triphosphate (ATP) chemical energy, collapses. The proton gradient loses its energy in the form of heat rather than the energy being used to produce ATP. DNP is very prominent in biochemistry research as researchers use it regularly in their chemiosmotic bioenergetics explorations, among other transport processes that occur in living cell membranes.
Simple description of DNP
DNP, also called Dnoc, Dinitro, Nitrophen or Dinosan, refers to an active compound whose main role is to disrupt the normal way in which living cells respire. Initially, the product featured in an array of industrial applications. Besides being used as explosive, the compound also came in handy as a pesticide, photographic developer, wood preserver as well as a herbicide.
Maurice Tainter, a researcher at Stanford University, was the first person to discover that the drug’s capability to reduce weight rapidly. The discovery was made in 1933 and the researcher later on started to market the medication as over-the-counter dietary support.
Action mechanism of DNP
DNP works by disrupting the normal manner in which cells respire, as a result making the metabolic rate and the energy consumption level of a cell to increase by ~11% per 100mg. It increases the amount of heat produced in a living cell in a process called uncoupling. The drug also makes the affected cell to have decreased efficiency as far as ATP respiration is concerned. ATP is the energy that the human body depends on for its entire functions.
Our body cells contain special components known as mitochondria whose basic function is to soak up energy which we utilize for various autonomous activities. DNP simply hinders the effective functioning of mitochondria, causing a rapid increase in the body heat and metabolic rate. An increase of the two variables results in weight loss of approximately 1.5kg in a week.
Use of DNP
Upon the initial report on DNP by Cutting and Tainter showing that it could increase the body metabolic rate remarkably; the drug was later widely used in diet pills, particularly in the 1930s. After the drug being on the market for just one year, Tainter released a report showing that it has been used to treat more than 100,000 people in the United States, among others worldwide.
Acting as a protonophore, DNP allows the penetration of protons through the inner membrane of mitochondria, hence bypassing ATP synthase. As a result, the efficiency in ATP energy production reduces. Some proportion of cellular respiration energy goes to waste in the form of heat.
The magnitude of ATP energy production inefficiency is dependent on the dose of DNP that a person takes. An increased dose of the drug leads to more inefficient energy production and increased metabolic rate which results in more burning of body fats. For that reason, DNP is ranked among the most effective uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation agent.
Dosage of the DNP (119-26-6)
We recommend a titration to a daily dose ranging from 200mg to 400 mg. The daily dose should be taken for two weeks.
The effects of 2, 4-DNP normally includes an increase in basal metabolic rate, body temperature and perspiration (in people). As a result, the body increases its respiration rate as a way of compensating for the changes so as to supply its tissues with more oxygen. An increase in body temperatures causes peripheral vasodilation to cool the body while the pulse rate increases in order to control the circulation.
If by any chance you breathe it, or it penetrates your skin, Dinitrophenol can affect you adversely. Direct skin or eye contact with the drug can cause severe irritation. The drug can affect the normal body metabolism, leading to a rise in body temperature.
Besides, the effect of Dinitrophenol on the peripheral nervous system can make you feel numbness or “pins and needles” sensation. You might also experience hand and feet weakness due to the drug.
Other side effects of the exposure to the drug include bluing of lips and skin, fever, headaches, convulsions, breakdown and prolonged unconsciousness. In a severe case involving higher levels of the drug, the lungs might have fluid accumulation which can lead to death. Exposure is likely to cause lung irritation which might lead to coughing and breathing difficulties.
If your skin gets in to contact with Dinitrophenol repeatedly or for an extended period, you might experience:
- Skin itch
- Drying of the skin
- Eye cataracts
- Liver damage
- Necrotizing tubular injury in the kidneys
- Lung irritation
- Bronchitis characterized by coughing and breathing difficulties
- Nervous system damage
- Fetus damage in pregnant women (in case of high exposure)
- Anemia due to damage on blood cells by the 2, 4-isomer (in case of repeated exposure)
- Death, mostly within 24 hours for a severe case
If a victim survives a critical phase of the poisoning by the drug, he or she is most likely to tolerate complications such as renal insufficiency or deadly hepatitis later in his or her life.
On the other hand, some people who have been exposed repeatedly to the drug report an enchanting feeling, for instance, feeling more energized and happier.
DNP (119-26-6) Final Words
Although it is an effective weight loss drug, DNP can lead to an array of adverse effects some of which can be fatal if used with disregard to its proper prescription and usage guidelines. Therefore, you should be extra careful while handling the drug.
- Journal of medical toxicology: official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology 7(3):205-12
- Tainter, ML et al. Use of dinitrophenol in obesity and related conditions.A progress report. JAMA. 1933;101:1472–1475.
- Dunlop, DM. The use of 2:4-dinitrophenol as a metabolic stimulant. Br Med J. 1934; 24(1): 524-527
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